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Diaper rash (diaper dermatitis) is a skin problem caused by the skin staying wet, rubbing from the diaper, and contact with chemicals in the urine and stool. The skin may look red, raw, scalded, or burned. While a diaper rash is uncomfortable, generally it is not a serious problem.
Diaper rash is the most common skin problem in babies and young children, but it can occur at any age if diapers or incontinence briefs are worn. Diaper rash occurs most often in babies between the ages of 9 and 12 months. It often occurs in babies who sleep for many hours without waking so the wet diaper is on them longer.
An adult may develop a rash in the genital area if he or she cannot wash the genital area well, such as while on a long backpacking trip. If an adult does not have complete bowel or bladder control (incontinence), he or she may use incontinence briefs. These briefs can cause skin irritation or a person may be allergic to the perfumes in the material. This type of rash is very similar to a baby’s diaper rash. Home treatment measures may help the rash go away.
The skin may blister or peel in severe cases of diaper rash, leaving raw areas that may bleed or ooze fluid. A diaper rash that becomes raw, oozes fluid, or bleeds is harder to treat. Fungal or bacterial infections may be the cause of a severe diaper rash.
The most common causes of diaper rash include:
A diaper rash may also be a sign of abuse or neglect.
Sometimes a diaper rash may occur with other skin problems, such as psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, or seborrhea. The rash may be red and oozing. A crust may form, and there will often be similar patches of rash on other parts of the body.
Most diaper rashes last about 24 hours and can be treated at home. The rash clears up when the diapers are changed more often, careful washing and cleaning of the skin is done, or nonprescription ointments are put on the area. Treatment for diaper rash is the same for both children and adults.
Home treatment is generally all that is needed for most cases of diaper rash. At the first sign of a diaper rash, try the following steps.
If the diaper rash does not get better after several days, try the following steps.
When treating a diaper rash:
Call your doctor if any of the following occur during home treatment:
The following simple steps can help prevent diaper rash.
A birthmark is a colored mark on or under a newborn baby’s skin. Some birthmarks show up soon after a baby is born. Most birthmarks are obvious at birth. Some kinds of birthmarks fade or go away as a child gets older. Others stay the same or get bigger, darker, or thicker.
There are many kinds of birthmarks. They can be any size or shape and can be different colors, such as blue or blue-gray, brown, tan, black, pink, white, red, or purple. Some birthmarks are smooth, and some are raised or lumpy.
Nearly all birthmarks are harmless and painless. But it’s important to have a doctor check all birthmarks, just to be sure they are okay.
Some birthmarks are from extra color (pigment) in the skin. Other birthmarks are blood vessels that are bunched together or don’t grow normally.
It’s not clear why some children have birthmarks and others don’t.
Most birthmarks are harmless and need no treatment. Some will even fade or disappear over time. But in rare cases, birthmarks need treatment because they are growing quickly, growing on an internal organ, or causing a medical problem (such as a problem with sight, breathing, hearing, speech, or movement).
There are several ways to fade, shrink, or remove birthmarks. These include:
Your options will depend on the type of birthmark, where it is, and what problems it’s causing. Treating a birthmark can be a big decision. The treatments may not work, and they can be painful and cause side effects.
If your child’s birthmark bothers or worries you, try not to let your child know how you feel. Ask others not to make a big deal out of it. If a birthmark upsets your child, it may help to have your child talk with a trusted doctor. If your child is still upset, talking to a counselor or support group may be a good idea to help him or her feel better.
If you see a birthmark on your baby, make sure that a doctor has seen it. Although most birthmarks are harmless, some aren’t.
If a birthmark grows, bleeds, hurts, or gets infected, see a doctor to have it checked.
Handling food safely, practicing basic hygiene to prevent communicable diseases, and getting regular physical exams and immunizations are all healthy habits that help protect your child against illness and infection.
Thorough cleaning and food preparation helps keep you and your child from getting food-borne illnesses. Do your best to also choose restaurants that handle food safely.
The U.S. Department of Agriculture recommends the following steps to prevent food poisoning:
Although colds and flu are more common in the colder months, they can occur any time of year. Take extra precautions to help protect your child against these and other viral and bacterial infections.
Schedule regular well-child appointments. During these visits, the doctor: